CHEM 4812
Chapter 1 Learning Objectives

Be able to list and briefly define the three common parts to a mass spectrometer.

Be able to classify the first type of ionic species formed in EI.

Be able to define and use the following terms:  molecular ion, radical cation, radical, cation, base peak, and fragment ions.

Be able to recognize and predict common fragmentation patterns for alkane radical cations.

Be able to recognize and predict common fragmentation patterns for radical cations that contain a phenyl ring.

Be able to recognize and predict common fragmentation patterns for radical cations that contain a hydroxyl functional group (alcohols). (i.e. dehydration, alpha cleavage)

Be able to recognize and predict common fragmentation patterns for radical cations that contain an ether functional group. (i.e. alpha cleavage, loss of alkyl group)

Be able to recognize and predict common fragmentation patterns for radical cations that contain an amine functional group. (i.e. alpha cleavage)

Be able to recognize and predict common fragmentation patterns for radical cations that contain a carbonyl functional group. (i.e. alpha cleavage, McLafferty Rearrangement)

Be able to recognize and predict common fragmentation patterns for radical cations that contain a carboxylic acid functional group. (i.e. b-g bond  cleavage, McLafferty Rearrangement)

Be able to draw the mechanism (using curvy arrows) for an alpha cleavage using an alcohol, ether, amine, ketone, aldehyde, carboxylic acid, and ester.

Be able to draw the mechanism (using curvy arrows) for a McLafferty Rearrangement using a ketone, aldehyde, carboxylic acid, and ester.

Be able to recognize the characteristic isotope peak pattern for compounds containing bromine and chlorine.

Be able to determine if the molecular (parent) ion is not present in the mass spectrum.

Be familiar with high resolution MS and how it can be used to distinguish between two compounds that have the same molecular weight but different molecular formulas.

Be able to determine the molecular formula of a compound using the Rule of 13 if given information on the heteroatoms present (from IR spectrum once we cover chapter 2).

Be able to briefly describe the following ionization methods and explain when they should be used.  Also, indicate whether they are hard of soft methods: Electron Impact (EI), Chemical Ionization (CI), Fast Atom Bombardment (FAB), Electrospray (ESI), and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption (MALDI).

Be able to briefly describe the following mass analyzers and explain when they should be used: magnetic sector, quadrupole, and Time of Flight (TOF).